عنوان مقاله [English]
Zoonoses involving transmission of disease and biotoxin producing agents from fish to humans have been documented in the literature mostly including bacteria, biotoxins and parasites. The list of potential fish-borne zoonoses is quite large. Twenty six infectious agents are discussed in this review and there are also many other infectious organisms of fish origin that have not been reported but have the potential to infect and harm human. The status of the human host immune system plays a vital role in the severity of the disease. The major exposure routes include ingestion and introduction of organisms through open wounds or abrasions. More specifically, ingestion includes consumption of raw or under-cooked infected fish tissue, ingestion of fish tissue contaminated with feces from infected fish. Overall 46.15 % of fish-borne zoonoses are transmitted orally which are mostly helminthic diseases are caused by Trematodes, Cestodes and nematodes. Yet these zoonoses are responsible for large numbers of human infections around the world. Ingestion of water harboring infectious organisms with 23.07 % and Dermal exposure includes introduction of infectious agents into open wounds or abrasions through handling infected fish or infected water with 19.23 % are other transmission ways and importantly 15.38 % of fish-borne zoonoses are transmitted by more than one way. Distribution, epidemiology, clinical aspects, and the research needed for improved risk assessments, clinical management and prevention and control of these important diseases are reviewed.