عنوان مقاله [English]
Biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers are active surface compounds that significantly reduce the surface tensions in very small amounts. Generally, microorganisms synthesize wide ranges of biosurfactants. These compounds are classified based on molecular weight, physicochemical properties and mode of action. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), one of the major components of commercial lecithin, is the most important membrane phospholipid in eukaryotes which can be synthesized by two pathways, the methylation and/or the CDP-choline pathways. Many prokaryotes lack PC, but in the membranes of some bacteria, significant amounts of this material are found. Due to the high importance of lecithin in the food and medicine industry, studies on the ingredients of lecithin such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine are matter of interests. Recognition of the biosynthesis pathways of phosphatidylcholine compounds, especially in the bacteria for optimal production of these microbial metabolites is a matter of great importance. In this study, the structure, biochemical function and biosynthesis pathways of biosurfactants are investigated in bacteria, the production technology and their important applications are also described.